Harvard Citation Style

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Harvard Citation Style

Harvard referencing style is the system, which is frequently used in physical, natural and social sciences. Due to the flexibility, ease and lucidity which this system provides, to both readers and writers, this style has become the most commonly used style internationally for academic journals.

General Guidelines

An essay should include a page header at the top right of every single page. The page header comprises of 2-3 words of the main subject of paper, after which a page number should be placed. Paper should use double spacing on a Standard-sized paper (8.5″ x 11″), having margin of 1” on each sides.

In-Text Citation

In Harvard citation style, all a writer needs to do is to mention the author and the date of the publication while doing in-text citation, while the bibliography page has to be organized in an alphabetical order. When quoting someone other’s work in the text, that text should be enclosed in quotation marks, followed by the last name and the date. At the same time, if a writer paraphrases someone’s work, then it is not required to be put in quotation marks, but the work should be cited by writing author’s name and the publication year.

Bibliography page

In the bibliography page, all the sources which are used and cited in the paper must be listed. These sources must be listed on alphabetical order.

Following are the formats used for bibliography page

Books by a single author

For referencing a book written by one author, following order must be followed

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year of publication). Book title (in italics), volume number. Place of publication: Publisher

Books by more than one author

For the book, which is written by more than one author, the order will be

Last name, First initial. Middle initial and . Last name, First initial. Middle initial (Year of publication). Book title (in italics), volume number. place of publication, Publisher

Articles from a journal

An article from a journal should be cited as following format

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year of publication). Title of article, journal of article Volume, pages,

Article in a newspaper

Articles from a newspaper are cited as

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year,). Article title. Newspaper Title, Month Day, pages

Article retrieved from an electronic database

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year). Article title. Journal Title [Internet], date of publication, Volume, pages. Available from: <Internet address> , [Accessed and date of viewing the page]

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MLA citation style

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MLA citation style

MLA citation style is Modern language Association’s rules and convention, which are used for the purpose of acknowledging source used in research papers.

General Guidelines

In MLA style, a page header is included at the top right of every single page. The page header includes the surname of the writer and page number. Paper should use double spacing and a standard typeface and type size, using 1” margin on the every corner of the page.

In-Text Citation

In case of quoting, paraphrasing or summarizing, the sources must be cited in the end. The quotation or paraphrased article must be cited in-text by stating author’s last name and the page number. Furthermore, quotations more than four lines must set apart in a block with a 1” indent from the set margin. Direct quotations should not include any punctuation mark, apart from period before citation.

Work Cited

At the end of every research paper, all the references cited in the paper must be listed according to the alphabetical order.

Book by a single author

Book written by a single writer must be cited as following order

Last Name, First Name and Initial (if given). Title (underlined). Location: Publisher, Year.

Book by two or more authors

Book written by two or more authors must be cited as following arrangement

Last Name, First Name and Initial (if given), and First Name Last Name. Title (underlined). Location:

If there are more than three writer, then “et al” must be written after first authors’ name

Article in a journal

Articles taken from journal must be cited as

Last Name, First Name. “Article Title.” Journal Title (italics)Volume Number (Year): pages. Publisher, Year.

Article in a newspaper

If a newspaper is used as a source, then the source must be arranged according to the following order

Last Name, First Name. “Article Title.” Newspaper Title (italics) Day Month Year, Edition Information: pages.

Document from an internet site

Documents accessed from an internet site must be organized according to the given below order

Last Name, First Name.. “Document Title.”. Site Title. Day Month Year (of access) <Network Address>

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APA Citation Style

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APA Citation Style

APA the acronym of American Psychological style is one of the most commonly used style of document. APA is mostly followed in Social Sciences. In APA style, sources used directly or indirectly must be accredited in text as well as in reference page.

General Guidelines

An APA essay should include a page header at the top right of every single page. The page header comprises of 2-3 words relating to the subject of the paper, after which a page number should be placed. Paper should use double spacing on a Standard-sized paper (8.5″ x 11″) having margin of 1” on each sides. The paper should have a “Title Page” and follow the standard essay format of Introduction, Body and Conclusion in APA style format.

In-Text Citation

An in-text citation must be placed when paraphrasing and summarizing the idea. The format of Last name of author, year of publication (in brackets) must be used when citing in-text. When quoting from a book, the writer may provide page number of the books but this is not necessary when paraphrasing. When citing a secondary source, write “cited in” in the in-text citation, then author and date of the work where the material was found.

A quotation of 40 or more words must be set apart in a block, called the block quotation. It should be indented ½” from the left margin and must be typed double spaced like the rest of the typed material without using any quotation mark. Just a final quotation mark is required at the end.

References

In APA format, separate references’ page is required with in-text citation. Given below are the formats used for the “References” section. All entries should use a hanging indent of 1/2’’ from the set margins, after the first line of each entry.

Books by a single author

Books written by a single author will be cited as the following format

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year). Book title (in italics). Location: Publisher.

Books by two or more authors

For two or more authors’ book, following format is required

Last name, First initial. Middle initial, Last name, First initial. Middle initial., & Last name, First Initial,. Middle Initial. (Year). Book title (in italics). Location: Publisher.

It is necessary to put “&” in place of “and” between the name of two authors..

Articles in a journal

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year). Title of article (in italics). Journal Title, Volume, pages.

Article in a magazine

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year, Month Day). Article title (in italics). Magazine Title, Volume, pages.

Article in a newspaper

Articles from a newspaper are cited as

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year, Month Day). Article title. Newspaper Title (in italics), pages.

Article retrieved from an electronic database

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year). Article title. Journal Title (in italics), Volume (in italics), pages. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from Database title database.

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