Swine Flu Sample Research paper

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Swine Flu

The H1N1 virus (swine influenza) is a novel infection that has not earlier been known in North America. It has recently, however, infected a number of people in the United States and Mexico. Swine flu is actually a respiratory virus of pigs which was first identified in 1918 and although historic diffusion to human beings has been sporadic, the infection rate in humans is intensifying at present (Barnes, 2008).

The H1N1 virus, just like seasonal influenza, is simply spread by the minute drops in a sneeze or cough. The person infected may cough into an empty space but it will leave microorganisms (germs) on the place that can easily be picked by the other person by touching that place.

The major symptoms of swine influenza are reported to include chills, dyspnea, headache, vomiting, diarrhea, myalgia, and fatigue. The chances of having Conjunctivitis is uncommon, but has been reported in some cases. Other symptoms include mild illness of respiratory track like nasal blocking and rhino rhea without temperature. In very rare cases sporadic severe diseases like pneumonia and respiratory failure also has been reported. Approximately thirty to fifty percent of the severe and deadly swine flu infections have been among young and middle-aged people who were previously in good physical shape (Barnes, 2008).

History of Swine flu

The Influenza outbreak of 1918, also remembered as the “Spanish” flu strain, and graded as an epidemic, is believed to have infected more than thirty percent of the total population of the world and became the source of as many as fifty million fatalities (Barnes, 2008). The death figure, according to the United States Center for Disease Control, could have been almost twice that since a number of people departed their life in that era were not actually diagnosed, nor were any samples of blood taken for testing and identification of the infection in the laboratory.

The rising rate of the swine flu infection rate has forced WHO to raise the level of the swine flu alert to its extreme alert level of Phase six from Phase five. The WHO, by moving up to its maximum alert level is signifying the fact that a worldwide epidemic might be under way. The severity of the virus, at this initial stage however, can be described internationally as being moderate.

Steps taken to control the epidemic

The Government, in order to control the spread of the endemic, has extended the authority of health officials and representatives to force the infected people and those who have been in a very close contact with somebody who has swine flu infection to be quarantined at home. This also includes forced barring of students and teachers from educational institutes.

(http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/04/090428222627.html)

This authority, however, has not considered necessary to be used since everyone who has been requested to segregate themselves has done so willingly and voluntarily.

Tony Ryall, the Health Minister has lately announced that The H1N1 virus –swine flu has been added to the health policies covering diseases that are notifiable and transmittable. The health ministry has informed the educational institutes to be ready for unexpected closures that could last more than a few weeks, and to have discussions with parents about distant learning.

References

Barnes, Ethne (2008); Diseases and Human Evolution; Published by UNM Press,

Science Daily (Apr. 28, 2009); Swine Flu Outbreak Continues To Grow, As Worldwide Pandemic Alert Level Raised To Phase 6 http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/04/090428222627.html

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How to make a Cover Page of a Term Paper

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How to make a Cover Page of a Term Paper

It is often believed that a book is judged by its cover. Hence the cover page or the title page of a paper, which could be an assignment, research report or a term paper, gives the face and introduction to the work being discussed in that particular paper. Also the cover page conveys critical information about the writer of the paper; hence, it is also vital in expressing the length of the paper.

Given the importance of a Cover page in a term paper, it should be arranged very carefully, keeping in mind that its contents are not only free of all types of syntactical and structural errors, but also, the contents should be brief and precise, without any unnecessary information being crammed in it. Also the arrangement of contents on the cover should be so as to leave a pleasant and clear-cut effect on the mind of the reader.

The contents of Cover Page should include;

Title

The title should be placed in the middle of the page in block letters; given the page is a Standard-sized paper (8.5″ x 11″), the title would be center if its placed at parallel to 4″ marker vertically, using the center alignment feature provided in Microsoft Office. The title of the paper is supposed to be the most emphasized part of your paper so its content should be concise and accurate.

Writer’s Name

Immediately below the title, in the next line writer’s name should be mentioned. There should be double spacing between consecutive lines.

Institution Name

The name of writer’s institution should appear in the next line after writer’s name. Again there should be double spacing between the lines.

Course Instructor’s Name and Course Name

In last, the name of professor to whom the paper is to be submitted should appear. The next line should mention the name of course, followed by the date of submission.

All the above mentioned contents of the title page are to be placed using center alignment, with double spacing in between. Now to give final touch to the Cover page, a running head and a page header are included. Their placement should be as follows

Running Head

The running head in a term paper is the shortened title of the paper. It is mentioned on the extreme left corner of the Cover page after leaving 1″ margin on each side. It is mentioned along with the actual words “Running Head” followed by a colon, after which the shortened title is stated. This short title is supposed to appear on every page of your paper.

Page Header

A page header of the Cover page is added in the first 1″ of the paper starting from extreme upper left corner of the page and ending in at extreme right upper corner. It is usually 1″ wide and contains the page number along with the running head.

This covers all the important aspects of term paper writing, so, happy writing!

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How to write a Good Personal Essay

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How to write a Good Personal Essay

A personal essay is a reflection of a person’s thoughts and actions after the deeds. The actions and reactions have taken place and the author is reminiscing about the things that actually happened and what could have happened. In short, a personal essay is a writer’s attempt to share his thoughts with those who are literally strangers to him.

Like any good essay, if the basics are to be followed, a personal essay will also contain an introductory paragraph followed by three to four paragraphs containing three to four ideas relating to writer’s views. The essay should have a conclusion paragraph at the end, but when it comes to the contents of this paragraph, there should not be any stagnation in views and ideas, the vocabulary or the style of conveying the contents.

There are few pointers that should be considered when writing a personal essay. As the essay is a reflection of writer’s own personality, he should make sure that it is presented in the best possible manner. Hence, the following points should be taken under consideration;

Tense

It is accepted as a norm by most critics that a personal essay should be written with first person point of view. Rather than writing the who said what in one’s own words and then explaining his or her emotions, it is a wiser and suitable choice to adopt the active voice. It allows the reader to take an event at its face value.

Language

The language being used in the essay plays a vital part in keeping the reader engrossed in a particular account. Instead of assembling long tedious sentences revolving around a single idea, being short and snappy is the preferred approach for personal accounts as it keeps the reader interested and prevents the essay from getting monotonous.

Grammar

Use of correct grammar is also a very important component for a good personal essay. It is vital for the writer to keep in mind that the content of his essay are not only free from all types of syntactical and structural errors, but also there should not be any grammatical errors present in the account. These types of errors tend to take the attention of the readers away from the content of essay and reflect badly upon the credibility of writer.

After making sure the above mentioned areas are covered, the actual writing of the essay begins. As mentioned earlier, the essay is to be divided in three portions; introduction, body and conclusion.

Introduction

After undertaking an interesting topic, starting the essay with an interesting sentence is crucial. The reader needs to be addressed so that he feels involved in the events that are unfolding in the essay. A strong compelling introduction gains the interest of a reader and given a hint about the body of essay, without actually revealing it.

Body

The body of an essay can comprise of three or more paragraphs. These hold the content that needs to be addressed in the essay. Each paragraph discusses a single idea, but it does so in a way that a whole essay is being written in a single paragraph. Here, the first few lines are used to introduce the idea for that particular paragraph, followed by a discussion of the idea, while the last few lines usually wrap up the discussion by stating the effects of that idea. A paragraph usually contains eight to ten lines. But this is not a restriction as the key is to present the views without being boring and repetitive.

Conclusion

Finally, the last paragraph concludes all the ideas discussed in the preceding paragraphs of the essay. The conclusion usually includes the hopes and wishes of the writer regarding his ideas. A good conclusion also ties all the loose ends and hints that are deliberately included in the introduction.

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Chicago Citation Style

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Chicago Citation Style

The Chicago referencing style, also referred as The Chicago Manual of Style or CMS, is a commonly followed documentation style, especially in American English literary works or papers. It has been a frequently adapted style for documentation of editorial practice. This style is followed when the source of information about a stated fact is important to be known, rather than just the author and year of publication of the source. The Chicago style is specially preferred for the effective use of its foot notes or end notes, where the author can include the complete source information or incorporate extra information to make the essay more meaningful.

Types of Chicago Style Manual

The Chicago style of documentation follows two types of styles for the papers. These are termed as Author-Date style of citation and Notes-Bibliography style.

General Guidelines

An essay should include a page header at the top right of every single page. The page header contains the page number along with the running head. Paper must be double spaced assuming that standard-sized paper (8.5″ x 11″) is being used, with a margin of 1” on each side. A complete paper is supposed to contain “Cover or Title Page”, “Body” and “References or Bibliography” and in case of Notes-Bibliography style “footnotes”.

Title Page:

When doing the Cover page or the Title page of Chicago styled paper, it is necessary that the title should be placed in the middle of the page in block letters; immediately below the title, in the next line writer’s name should be mentioned with double spacing between consecutive lines. The name of writer’s institution should appear in the next line, followed by name of the professor for the course, name of course and then finally the date. Also on the cover page Running head is mentioned on the extreme left corner of the Cover page after leaving 1″ margin on each side. A page header of the Cover page is added in the first 1″ of cover page containing running head and page number.

Numbering:

The page numbers appear on the top right corner of each page in page header. All pages are numbered in the Chicago styled papers, including the cover page, which is numbered 1. So the page after the title page is number 2.

Spacing and Margins:

The papers written in Chicago style have standard double line spacing between two consecutive lines, with 1″ margins left on each side of the page. Each new paragraph begins with half inch indent on its extreme left in the first sentence. The quotations in Chicago styled papers are referred as block quotation and in a quotation the line spacing is kept single, with entire quotation half indented from the margin or is center aligned.

Footnotes and Bibliography:

The Bibliography maintained in Author-Date style is simple, i.e. mentioning name of author and year of publication within round brackets for in text citation, but the entry of corresponding source in bibliography follows certain rules.

Books by a single author

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year). Book title (italics). Location: Publisher.

Books by two or more authors

Last name, First initial. Middle initial., Last name, First initial. Middle initial., and Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year). Book title (italics). Location: Publisher.

Edited book

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Ed.). (Year). Book title (italics). Location: Publisher.

Articles in a journal

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. Title of article. Journal Title, Volume, (Year), pages.

Article in a magazine

Such articles are not included in Bibliography. Citation is made in running text style.

Article in a newspaper

Such articles are not included in Bibliography. Citation is made in running text style.

Article retrieved from an electronic database

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year). Article title. Journal Title, Volume, pages. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from Database title database.

However, when following the Notes-Bibliography Style, the in text citation is mentioned by square brackets [] with a numeral written in between, the number points to corresponding foot note included in the end of that page. The procedure for writing footnotes is as follows,

Books by a single author

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Book title. Location: Publisher. Year).

Books by two or more authors

Last name, First initial. Middle initial., Last name, First initial. Middle initial., and Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Book title. Location: Publisher. Year).

Edited book

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Ed.). (Year). Book title. Location: Publisher.

Articles in a journal

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. Title of article. Journal Title, Volume, (Year), pages.

Article in a magazine

In the footnote, the commentary is made in running text style.

Article in a newspaper

In the footnote, the commentary is made in running text style.

Article retrieved from an electronic database

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. Article title. Journal Title, Volume, pages. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from Database title database. (Year).

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