Chicago Citation Style

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Chicago Citation Style

The Chicago referencing style, also referred as The Chicago Manual of Style or CMS, is a commonly followed documentation style, especially in American English literary works or papers. It has been a frequently adapted style for documentation of editorial practice. This style is followed when the source of information about a stated fact is important to be known, rather than just the author and year of publication of the source. The Chicago style is specially preferred for the effective use of its foot notes or end notes, where the author can include the complete source information or incorporate extra information to make the essay more meaningful.

Types of Chicago Style Manual

The Chicago style of documentation follows two types of styles for the papers. These are termed as Author-Date style of citation and Notes-Bibliography style.

General Guidelines

An essay should include a page header at the top right of every single page. The page header contains the page number along with the running head. Paper must be double spaced assuming that standard-sized paper (8.5″ x 11″) is being used, with a margin of 1” on each side. A complete paper is supposed to contain “Cover or Title Page”, “Body” and “References or Bibliography” and in case of Notes-Bibliography style “footnotes”.

Title Page:

When doing the Cover page or the Title page of Chicago styled paper, it is necessary that the title should be placed in the middle of the page in block letters; immediately below the title, in the next line writer’s name should be mentioned with double spacing between consecutive lines. The name of writer’s institution should appear in the next line, followed by name of the professor for the course, name of course and then finally the date. Also on the cover page Running head is mentioned on the extreme left corner of the Cover page after leaving 1″ margin on each side. A page header of the Cover page is added in the first 1″ of cover page containing running head and page number.

Numbering:

The page numbers appear on the top right corner of each page in page header. All pages are numbered in the Chicago styled papers, including the cover page, which is numbered 1. So the page after the title page is number 2.

Spacing and Margins:

The papers written in Chicago style have standard double line spacing between two consecutive lines, with 1″ margins left on each side of the page. Each new paragraph begins with half inch indent on its extreme left in the first sentence. The quotations in Chicago styled papers are referred as block quotation and in a quotation the line spacing is kept single, with entire quotation half indented from the margin or is center aligned.

Footnotes and Bibliography:

The Bibliography maintained in Author-Date style is simple, i.e. mentioning name of author and year of publication within round brackets for in text citation, but the entry of corresponding source in bibliography follows certain rules.

Books by a single author

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year). Book title (italics). Location: Publisher.

Books by two or more authors

Last name, First initial. Middle initial., Last name, First initial. Middle initial., and Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year). Book title (italics). Location: Publisher.

Edited book

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Ed.). (Year). Book title (italics). Location: Publisher.

Articles in a journal

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. Title of article. Journal Title, Volume, (Year), pages.

Article in a magazine

Such articles are not included in Bibliography. Citation is made in running text style.

Article in a newspaper

Such articles are not included in Bibliography. Citation is made in running text style.

Article retrieved from an electronic database

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year). Article title. Journal Title, Volume, pages. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from Database title database.

However, when following the Notes-Bibliography Style, the in text citation is mentioned by square brackets [] with a numeral written in between, the number points to corresponding foot note included in the end of that page. The procedure for writing footnotes is as follows,

Books by a single author

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Book title. Location: Publisher. Year).

Books by two or more authors

Last name, First initial. Middle initial., Last name, First initial. Middle initial., and Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Book title. Location: Publisher. Year).

Edited book

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Ed.). (Year). Book title. Location: Publisher.

Articles in a journal

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. Title of article. Journal Title, Volume, (Year), pages.

Article in a magazine

In the footnote, the commentary is made in running text style.

Article in a newspaper

In the footnote, the commentary is made in running text style.

Article retrieved from an electronic database

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. Article title. Journal Title, Volume, pages. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from Database title database. (Year).

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Harvard Citation Style

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Harvard Citation Style

Harvard referencing style is the system, which is frequently used in physical, natural and social sciences. Due to the flexibility, ease and lucidity which this system provides, to both readers and writers, this style has become the most commonly used style internationally for academic journals.

General Guidelines

An essay should include a page header at the top right of every single page. The page header comprises of 2-3 words of the main subject of paper, after which a page number should be placed. Paper should use double spacing on a Standard-sized paper (8.5″ x 11″), having margin of 1” on each sides.

In-Text Citation

In Harvard citation style, all a writer needs to do is to mention the author and the date of the publication while doing in-text citation, while the bibliography page has to be organized in an alphabetical order. When quoting someone other’s work in the text, that text should be enclosed in quotation marks, followed by the last name and the date. At the same time, if a writer paraphrases someone’s work, then it is not required to be put in quotation marks, but the work should be cited by writing author’s name and the publication year.

Bibliography page

In the bibliography page, all the sources which are used and cited in the paper must be listed. These sources must be listed on alphabetical order.

Following are the formats used for bibliography page

Books by a single author

For referencing a book written by one author, following order must be followed

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year of publication). Book title (in italics), volume number. Place of publication: Publisher

Books by more than one author

For the book, which is written by more than one author, the order will be

Last name, First initial. Middle initial and . Last name, First initial. Middle initial (Year of publication). Book title (in italics), volume number. place of publication, Publisher

Articles from a journal

An article from a journal should be cited as following format

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year of publication). Title of article, journal of article Volume, pages,

Article in a newspaper

Articles from a newspaper are cited as

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year,). Article title. Newspaper Title, Month Day, pages

Article retrieved from an electronic database

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year). Article title. Journal Title [Internet], date of publication, Volume, pages. Available from: <Internet address> , [Accessed and date of viewing the page]

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MLA citation style

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MLA citation style

MLA citation style is Modern language Association’s rules and convention, which are used for the purpose of acknowledging source used in research papers.

General Guidelines

In MLA style, a page header is included at the top right of every single page. The page header includes the surname of the writer and page number. Paper should use double spacing and a standard typeface and type size, using 1” margin on the every corner of the page.

In-Text Citation

In case of quoting, paraphrasing or summarizing, the sources must be cited in the end. The quotation or paraphrased article must be cited in-text by stating author’s last name and the page number. Furthermore, quotations more than four lines must set apart in a block with a 1” indent from the set margin. Direct quotations should not include any punctuation mark, apart from period before citation.

Work Cited

At the end of every research paper, all the references cited in the paper must be listed according to the alphabetical order.

Book by a single author

Book written by a single writer must be cited as following order

Last Name, First Name and Initial (if given). Title (underlined). Location: Publisher, Year.

Book by two or more authors

Book written by two or more authors must be cited as following arrangement

Last Name, First Name and Initial (if given), and First Name Last Name. Title (underlined). Location:

If there are more than three writer, then “et al” must be written after first authors’ name

Article in a journal

Articles taken from journal must be cited as

Last Name, First Name. “Article Title.” Journal Title (italics)Volume Number (Year): pages. Publisher, Year.

Article in a newspaper

If a newspaper is used as a source, then the source must be arranged according to the following order

Last Name, First Name. “Article Title.” Newspaper Title (italics) Day Month Year, Edition Information: pages.

Document from an internet site

Documents accessed from an internet site must be organized according to the given below order

Last Name, First Name.. “Document Title.”. Site Title. Day Month Year (of access) <Network Address>

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APA Citation Style

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APA Citation Style

APA the acronym of American Psychological style is one of the most commonly used style of document. APA is mostly followed in Social Sciences. In APA style, sources used directly or indirectly must be accredited in text as well as in reference page.

General Guidelines

An APA essay should include a page header at the top right of every single page. The page header comprises of 2-3 words relating to the subject of the paper, after which a page number should be placed. Paper should use double spacing on a Standard-sized paper (8.5″ x 11″) having margin of 1” on each sides. The paper should have a “Title Page” and follow the standard essay format of Introduction, Body and Conclusion in APA style format.

In-Text Citation

An in-text citation must be placed when paraphrasing and summarizing the idea. The format of Last name of author, year of publication (in brackets) must be used when citing in-text. When quoting from a book, the writer may provide page number of the books but this is not necessary when paraphrasing. When citing a secondary source, write “cited in” in the in-text citation, then author and date of the work where the material was found.

A quotation of 40 or more words must be set apart in a block, called the block quotation. It should be indented ½” from the left margin and must be typed double spaced like the rest of the typed material without using any quotation mark. Just a final quotation mark is required at the end.

References

In APA format, separate references’ page is required with in-text citation. Given below are the formats used for the “References” section. All entries should use a hanging indent of 1/2’’ from the set margins, after the first line of each entry.

Books by a single author

Books written by a single author will be cited as the following format

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year). Book title (in italics). Location: Publisher.

Books by two or more authors

For two or more authors’ book, following format is required

Last name, First initial. Middle initial, Last name, First initial. Middle initial., & Last name, First Initial,. Middle Initial. (Year). Book title (in italics). Location: Publisher.

It is necessary to put “&” in place of “and” between the name of two authors..

Articles in a journal

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year). Title of article (in italics). Journal Title, Volume, pages.

Article in a magazine

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year, Month Day). Article title (in italics). Magazine Title, Volume, pages.

Article in a newspaper

Articles from a newspaper are cited as

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year, Month Day). Article title. Newspaper Title (in italics), pages.

Article retrieved from an electronic database

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year). Article title. Journal Title (in italics), Volume (in italics), pages. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from Database title database.

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Difference Between an Essay and a Term Paper

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A student may be exposed to various kinds of writing while studying different arts and humanities subjects. These could include project reports, case studies or diaries. However, essay remains the most common form of writing in arts and humanities. A Term Paper is a piece of writing, which requires demonstration of a more abstract, critical and thoughtful level of inquiry. Students are expected to write Term Papers usually at the college or university level, to judge their writing and analytical skills.

The word essay originally meant to attempt, but now it is commonly referred to as a short piece of writing on a particular subject. The piece of writing should be able to stand-alone and make sense by addressing certain issues, which could range from literary criticism to political manifestos and observations of daily life. Essays are usually shorter in length but they should be well organized and put together an argument that leads the reader to a conclusion. An essay typically composes of more than three paragraphs. The first paragraph gives a brief introduction of the topic, which is then followed by two or three paragraphs, which try to prove an argument. A concluding paragraph at the end summarizes the findings of the essay.

In order to write a Term Paper, a writer must familiarize himself with the works of experts and other well-published authors in the respective field. These published works can be accessed on the Internet, libraries, and scholarly journals or through personal interviews. This will help in building on a person’s knowledge about the subject and serve as a baseline for comparing his ideas with these published sources (Term Papers_ What is a Term Paper).

Writing essays is an important part of studying because it depends the learning of a subject being studied. A person will learn to put forth new ideas and argue a case. Essays can also help in refining an individual’s thinking and writing skill. Preparing a good essay requires skills that highlight the analytical and critical thinking abilities of a writer. A good essay should be sharp in focus and answer the question or main topic. All relevant parts of the course need to be grasped so that a logical, fair and coherent argument is presented to the reader. The essay should be written in an objective and analytical way, with appropriate use of illustration and evidence to substantiate the claims.

A Term Paper needs to provide relevant information, facts and figures supported by the works of these expert figures. A writer must also incorporate his own critical thinking, insights and ideas into the paper; these are often backed by the findings of some research conducted earlier.

There are many different types of essays. Academic essays challenge the intellectual capabilities of students and their ability to organize thoughts. They may include a literature review, which summarizes the research conducted earlier. All academic essays need to be supported by substantial facts and citations of the references, to help in the evaluation of arguments. A writer puts his thoughts on a paper in an essay. The writer needs to consider the subject and determine the purpose of writing. Thought should also be given to the audience before deciding on specific examples. The essay should be a well-organized and coherent piece of writing supported by appropriate facts and examples.

A descriptive essay should provide greater sensory details to touch the emotional, physical and intellectual senses of a reader (English Works!_ Essays). The writer must make use of tools such as denotative language, connotative language, figurative language, metaphor, and simile to create a strong impact. In a philosophical essay, the writer makes a thesis statement and present arguments and counterarguments to reach an open-minded conclusion. Other type of essays gaining popularity relate to visual arts, music and films.

A Term Paper may also assume certain kinds. An analytical paper requires a comprehensive understanding of a topic by researching it thoroughly. All existing information needs to be critically analyzed and evaluated. After this analysis, a writer must be able to restructure and present the topic from his own perspective. It is important not to reach any conclusions when doing the research. An argumentative or persuasive type of paper requires the person to take a stand on a particular topic, and support it with appropriate examples and evidence. The attempt is to convince the reader of writer’s point of view. The person is not trying to explore a research question but presenting his point of view. A person may present his insights, critical evaluations and other beliefs at the end of the paper to draw conclusions

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Nursing School Admission Essay Tips

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The main purpose of the nursing school admission essay is to prove that you are worth of being accepted to the nursing school you are applying for. It can be only a 500 word essay but your acceptance and rejection may depend on it.

Nursing School Admission Essay Tips

Nursing school admission essay should include information about you and the issues which prove that you really want to take up nursing as a career. Your imagination, skills, talent and knowledge help in writing an impressive nursing school admission essay. Essay writing process might take many days.

Here are some points which should be illustrated in the essay.

a) Brain storming:

Take time to think about the possible essay subjects and the following points should be considered:

What are you like?

· Strongest personality trait and any quality that distinguishes you from others.

· Your friends’ opinions about you and what do you think they would write if they were writing the admission essay for you.

· Your favorite movies, books and works of art should be considered and how they influence your life.

· Your experience of a moment of epiphany as if your eyes are opened to something you previously didn’t notice or care about.

What have you done?

· Your major accomplishments.

· Your activities outside classroom which demonstrate qualities sought after by universities.

· If you ever struggled for something and succeeded, what made you successful or if you struggled for something and failed, how did you react.

· Your most difficult time in life and how did it affect your life.

Where do you want to go?

· Where do you want to be and most like to be doing right now and who would you like to be with?

· Your dreams.

· Reason for selecting this particular university.

b) Selecting an Essay Topic

It is important to choose the essay topic wisely. Think of how this subject matter can be made original. A boring topic can be made interesting if creatively approached. Consider the following points when choosing an essay topic:

· Does the topic repeat information listed somewhere in your application? And if it does, choose another topic. GPAs and standardized test scores should not be mentioned in the essay.

· There should be supporting paragraphs to the essay topic. So think of the supporting paragraphs with concrete examples before selecting any topic.

· Select a topic which you think the officer will remember after a day of reading a number of essays.

Choose a story

A good essay tells a story about the applicant and it is not the story of the whole life but just a glimpse. An ordinary story can be told in a unique and captivating way.

c) Writing the Essay

When writing nursing school admission essay, two points should be focused: to prove to the admission officer that you are worthy of admission and that you are more than a GPA and standardized score. Your writing should reflect your intriguing personality.

Introduction

The admission officer will spend maximum two minutes reading your essay so keeping this fact in mind, create mystery or intrigue in the first paragraph to give the admission officer a reason to continue reading.

The Body

The body must relate to the introduction. Having a theme or phrase helps to run throughout the essay. Use simple language and specific examples.

Conclusion

The conclusion is the last chance to impress the reader. Broader implications of the discussion should be expanded.

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How to polish your Essay Writing Skills

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Essay writing skills are vital for students. There are some techniques which can help polish your essay writing skills and it is important to remember that practice makes perfect

How to polish your Essay Writing Skills

The first thing is to explore the topic and the writer should know how he will go about the essay. To be a good essay writer, it is essential to make your reading and thinking both very strong. Though most of the material is available on the internet which helps you write your essay but library should also be frequently visited. Essay writing should be done with proper planning. If you try to do unplanned essay writing, you will get stuck in the middle and there will be no way out, round or through. Take necessary notes and make a draft before beginning final essay writing. Random and eleventh hour essay writing gives limited options to the writer and affects the quality of the essay.

Keep proof reading as you write the essay. It is very important to check and recheck the essay at every stage. Check each paragraph as you write because there is always room for improvement. For better essay writing, keep checking as you write.

Good essay writing should have consistency. Tenses and noun arrangement should be synchronized. The essay must be logical. Essay writing should reflect the logical aspect of your thinking and it gets easier if you stay precise.

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Writing a High School Essay

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Essay writing is an important part of high school academic life. Before starting the essay, and outline of your ideas should be prepared by putting your ideas about the topic on a paper. The structure for high school essay is quite simple.

Writing a High School Essay

Essay writing is an important part of high school academic life. To write a five- paragraph essay, the students need some basic skill and practice. Before starting the essay, and outline of your ideas should be prepared by putting your ideas about the topic on a paper. The structure for high school essay is quite simple.

a) Introduction and thesis statement.

b) Main body comprising of three paragraphs.

c) Conclusion.

a) Introduction: A good introduction is very important for a high school essay. The introduction can be used to briefly outline the intentions in writing the essay. It should have a thesis statement which should be explained without using specific terms like “This essay is about…..” or “the topic of the essay is…..” The writer can begin with a general statement followed by a question or a problem, then the thesis statement along with a brief over view of the points.

b) Main body: It is best to identify three or more points that support or explain the thesis statement and these points should be supported by evidence or arguments. The body of the essay should relate to the issues discussed in the introduction. Links and transitions between paragraphs should be made clear. If the key issues have been identified in the introduction, they can be explained in separate paragraphs.

c) Conclusion: The essay requires a conclusion to avoid it losing its force. Conclusion should have the summary of all the points discussed in the essay using a broader perspective.

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Difference Between a Research Paper and an Essay

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A research paper is a piece of writing, which requires demonstration of a more abstract, critical and thoughtful level of inquiry. Students are expected to write research papers usually at the college or university level, to judge their writing and analytical skills.

Research Paper

A research paper is a piece of writing, which requires demonstration of a more abstract, critical and thoughtful level of inquiry. Students are expected to write research papers usually at the college or university level, to judge their writing and analytical skills.

In order to write a research paper, a writer must familiarize himself with the works of experts and other well-published authors in the respective field. These published works can be accessed on the Internet, libraries, and scholarly journals or through personal interviews. This will help in building on a person’s knowledge about the subject and serve as a baseline for comparing his ideas with these published sources (Research Papers_ What is a Research Paper).

A research paper needs to provide relevant information, facts and figures supported by the works of these expert figures. A writer must also incorporate his own critical thinking, insights and ideas into the paper; these are often backed by the findings of some research conducted earlier. An analytical paper requires a comprehensive understanding of a topic by researching it thoroughly. All existing information needs to be critically analyzed and evaluated. After this analysis, a writer must be able to restructure and present the topic from his own perspective. It is important not to reach any conclusions when doing the research.

An argumentative or persuasive type of paper requires the person to take a stand on a particular topic, and support it with appropriate examples and evidence. The attempt is to convince the reader of writer’s point of view. The person is not trying to explore a research question but presenting his point of view. A person may present his insights, critical evaluations and other beliefs at the end of the paper to draw conclusions.

Essay

An essay is defined as a short piece of writing, which can cover diverse topics ranging from literary criticism to political manifestos and observations of daily life. The author usually presents his point of view when reflecting on the topic.

Essays have become an integral part of formal education and structured essay format form the basis of adequate writing skills. In initial years, the students are exposed to a highly structured five-paragraph essay format. This involves an introductory paragraph stating the thesis statement, followed by three body paragraphs supporting the thesis and a conclusion. The presentation of a writer’s thoughts in an essay is often judged on the logic, factualness and coherence of the written material. The use of a first person is usually discouraged in writing essays.

There are many different types of essays. Academic essays are often longer, with a word limit of two to five thousand words. Such essays challenge the intellectual capabilities of students and their ability to organize thoughts. They may include a literature review, which summarizes the research conducted earlier. All academic essays need to be supported by substantial facts and citations of the references, to help in the evaluation of arguments. A descriptive essay should provide greater sensory details to touch the emotional, physical and intellectual senses of a reader (English Works!_ Essays). The writer must make use of tools such as denotative language, connotative language, figurative language, metaphor, and simile to create a strong impact.

A narrative essay focuses on the plot and may use tools such as flashbacks, flash-forwards, and transitions that often build to a climax. A comparison essay points to different basis for comparison and contrasting highlights differences between two or more objects. Another piece of writing is cause and effect, which discusses causal chains and thinking critically about different causes or consequences. In a philosophical essay, the writer makes a thesis statement and present arguments and counterarguments to reach an open-minded conclusion. Other type of essays gaining popularity relate to visual arts, music and films.

To conclude, a writer puts his thoughts on a paper in an essay. The writer needs to consider the subject and determine the purpose of writing. Thought should also be given to the audience before deciding on specific examples. The essay should be a well-organized and coherent piece of writing supported by appropriate facts and examples.

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How to Write an Essay: A Brief Overview

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Establishing your essay topic is very important because it tells the reader what the essay will talk about and what stance it shall take. Topics need to be thought out very carefully and a thoughtful analysis of the main idea needs to be done in order to determine a topic that is short and detailed enough to cover the main idea and what the essay aims to look at.

How to Write an Essay

  • Establish your topic

Establishing your essay topic is very important because it tells the reader what the essay will talk about and what stance it shall take. Topics need to be thought out very carefully and a thoughtful analysis of the main idea needs to be done in order to determine a topic that is short and detailed enough to cover the main idea and what the essay aims to look at. The topic should not be very long or verbose that it puts off the reader from reading further. Rather it should evoke interest in the reader’s mind to go ahead with the essay.

  • Organize your ideas

Organization and layout of the essay is vital to make the essay effective and achieve its objective. The writer should first organize his or her ideas in the mind and then pen them on a sheet of paper as they come. Then he or she should analyze all the ideas written on the paper and systematically organize them to make the essay flowing to the reader. Cohesiveness is the aim of the reader and to achieve it all ideas should be organized and well planned out before hand. A proactive approach to essay writing is always helpful as it eases the writing of the writer and is comparatively much more effective when compared to an unorganized essay.

  • Write a first draft

The first draft is essentially only an attempt to pen down the ideas thought out in the brainstorming stage. The sentences are coarse and usually not as descriptive as they would be in the final essay. The draft carried the main idea of the message and how it has to be conveyed to the reader. It is a basic outlook of the final essay. The draft gives an idea to the writer about how he or she will be actually writing the final essay. What aspects can be revised to make the essay a much better look and make it much more effective.

  • Revise the first draft

Since the first draft is only a way to determine the strength of the essay, it needs to be revised to make it organized and linked with each of the paragraphs. The main message of the essay should be present in the body of the essay and a summary should be in place in the conclusion. The revised essay will be ready for submission only after proper proof reading has taken place.

  • Proof read the final draft

Proof reading of the final draft is necessary to finally eliminate any errors that have come up due to grammatical or contextual in accuracies. While writing essays the writer is so engrossed in the essay’s main idea that certain errors might get overlooked. The proof reading should be very careful as it is the last stage of the whole process. A review of the context should also be done in order to make the whole essay much more effective while being addressed to the readers.

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