How to cite resources in a research paper

GD Star Rating
loading...

How to cite resources in a research paper

At the time, while you are composing your research paper, always keep in mind, the fact, that it is extremely significant for you present your resources well, even when you are summarizing, paraphrasing or quoting the composition of a different writer. The manner in which you should cite resources in a research paper is by means of adding cross-references or annotations at the end of every sheet of your paper or else by introducing parenthetical citations at the side of the extracted passage.

Resource citation is the method to present a connection to your resources of passages, summaries and quotes. Quoting resources also is considered to be the channel to grant acknowledgment to the writers whose earlier creations have facilitated you in producing your very own individual research paper. Cite resources in a research paper will also assist you in avoiding breach of copyright. You should also remember to add a bibliography at the finish stage of your paper.

Different citation styles

There are quite a lot of style manuals to cite resources in a research paper. From time to time your lecturer will mention the citation style, which he would prefer you to apply. At other instances, it will be left entirely to you to apply a style, which you are at ease with as well as feel happy in availing yourself of.  The layout of your research paper citations mainly is determined by your own selected citation style. The different ways to cite resources in a research paper are briefly mentioned below along with where and how to use them.

1. The most widely used citation styles, which have been worked on tend to be the Modern Language Association of America also popularly referred to as MLA, American Psychological Association citation style also known as the APA and Chicago Manual of Style, widely referred as the Turabian Style Guide or as the Chicago Style Guide.

2. The MLA citation style is frequently brought into play when the study paper speaks regarding issues with reference to arts, literature and humanities. In support of research papers that deal with social sciences, it is always better to make use of American Psychological Association or APA citation style guide, whereas the majority writers for subjects pertaining to history have a preference for applying the Chicago Style Guide.

3. All of the three common citation style guides mentioned above only possess slight variations between themselves, in the way they are presented in the research paper. It is always advisable for you to go through all the information mentioned inside the published guidebooks for better understanding of these three different citation styles.

There are additional set of laws for you to follow in order to cite resources in a research paper, for instance, the correct way to layout the complete research paper, citation of online publications and printed articles. Determine which particular style suits you the most and try to retain it all through your writing. Uniformity of citation style is among the important features that your lecturer will search for once you submit the research paper.

GD Star Rating
loading...

Chicago Citation Style

GD Star Rating
loading...

Chicago Citation Style

The Chicago referencing style, also referred as The Chicago Manual of Style or CMS, is a commonly followed documentation style, especially in American English literary works or papers. It has been a frequently adapted style for documentation of editorial practice. This style is followed when the source of information about a stated fact is important to be known, rather than just the author and year of publication of the source. The Chicago style is specially preferred for the effective use of its foot notes or end notes, where the author can include the complete source information or incorporate extra information to make the essay more meaningful.

Types of Chicago Style Manual

The Chicago style of documentation follows two types of styles for the papers. These are termed as Author-Date style of citation and Notes-Bibliography style.

General Guidelines

An essay should include a page header at the top right of every single page. The page header contains the page number along with the running head. Paper must be double spaced assuming that standard-sized paper (8.5″ x 11″) is being used, with a margin of 1” on each side. A complete paper is supposed to contain “Cover or Title Page”, “Body” and “References or Bibliography” and in case of Notes-Bibliography style “footnotes”.

Title Page:

When doing the Cover page or the Title page of Chicago styled paper, it is necessary that the title should be placed in the middle of the page in block letters; immediately below the title, in the next line writer’s name should be mentioned with double spacing between consecutive lines. The name of writer’s institution should appear in the next line, followed by name of the professor for the course, name of course and then finally the date. Also on the cover page Running head is mentioned on the extreme left corner of the Cover page after leaving 1″ margin on each side. A page header of the Cover page is added in the first 1″ of cover page containing running head and page number.

Numbering:

The page numbers appear on the top right corner of each page in page header. All pages are numbered in the Chicago styled papers, including the cover page, which is numbered 1. So the page after the title page is number 2.

Spacing and Margins:

The papers written in Chicago style have standard double line spacing between two consecutive lines, with 1″ margins left on each side of the page. Each new paragraph begins with half inch indent on its extreme left in the first sentence. The quotations in Chicago styled papers are referred as block quotation and in a quotation the line spacing is kept single, with entire quotation half indented from the margin or is center aligned.

Footnotes and Bibliography:

The Bibliography maintained in Author-Date style is simple, i.e. mentioning name of author and year of publication within round brackets for in text citation, but the entry of corresponding source in bibliography follows certain rules.

Books by a single author

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year). Book title (italics). Location: Publisher.

Books by two or more authors

Last name, First initial. Middle initial., Last name, First initial. Middle initial., and Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year). Book title (italics). Location: Publisher.

Edited book

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Ed.). (Year). Book title (italics). Location: Publisher.

Articles in a journal

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. Title of article. Journal Title, Volume, (Year), pages.

Article in a magazine

Such articles are not included in Bibliography. Citation is made in running text style.

Article in a newspaper

Such articles are not included in Bibliography. Citation is made in running text style.

Article retrieved from an electronic database

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year). Article title. Journal Title, Volume, pages. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from Database title database.

However, when following the Notes-Bibliography Style, the in text citation is mentioned by square brackets [] with a numeral written in between, the number points to corresponding foot note included in the end of that page. The procedure for writing footnotes is as follows,

Books by a single author

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Book title. Location: Publisher. Year).

Books by two or more authors

Last name, First initial. Middle initial., Last name, First initial. Middle initial., and Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Book title. Location: Publisher. Year).

Edited book

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Ed.). (Year). Book title. Location: Publisher.

Articles in a journal

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. Title of article. Journal Title, Volume, (Year), pages.

Article in a magazine

In the footnote, the commentary is made in running text style.

Article in a newspaper

In the footnote, the commentary is made in running text style.

Article retrieved from an electronic database

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. Article title. Journal Title, Volume, pages. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from Database title database. (Year).

GD Star Rating
loading...

Harvard Citation Style

GD Star Rating
loading...

Harvard Citation Style

Harvard referencing style is the system, which is frequently used in physical, natural and social sciences. Due to the flexibility, ease and lucidity which this system provides, to both readers and writers, this style has become the most commonly used style internationally for academic journals.

General Guidelines

An essay should include a page header at the top right of every single page. The page header comprises of 2-3 words of the main subject of paper, after which a page number should be placed. Paper should use double spacing on a Standard-sized paper (8.5″ x 11″), having margin of 1” on each sides.

In-Text Citation

In Harvard citation style, all a writer needs to do is to mention the author and the date of the publication while doing in-text citation, while the bibliography page has to be organized in an alphabetical order. When quoting someone other’s work in the text, that text should be enclosed in quotation marks, followed by the last name and the date. At the same time, if a writer paraphrases someone’s work, then it is not required to be put in quotation marks, but the work should be cited by writing author’s name and the publication year.

Bibliography page

In the bibliography page, all the sources which are used and cited in the paper must be listed. These sources must be listed on alphabetical order.

Following are the formats used for bibliography page

Books by a single author

For referencing a book written by one author, following order must be followed

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year of publication). Book title (in italics), volume number. Place of publication: Publisher

Books by more than one author

For the book, which is written by more than one author, the order will be

Last name, First initial. Middle initial and . Last name, First initial. Middle initial (Year of publication). Book title (in italics), volume number. place of publication, Publisher

Articles from a journal

An article from a journal should be cited as following format

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year of publication). Title of article, journal of article Volume, pages,

Article in a newspaper

Articles from a newspaper are cited as

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year,). Article title. Newspaper Title, Month Day, pages

Article retrieved from an electronic database

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year). Article title. Journal Title [Internet], date of publication, Volume, pages. Available from: <Internet address> , [Accessed and date of viewing the page]

GD Star Rating
loading...

MLA citation style

GD Star Rating
loading...

MLA citation style

MLA citation style is Modern language Association’s rules and convention, which are used for the purpose of acknowledging source used in research papers.

General Guidelines

In MLA style, a page header is included at the top right of every single page. The page header includes the surname of the writer and page number. Paper should use double spacing and a standard typeface and type size, using 1” margin on the every corner of the page.

In-Text Citation

In case of quoting, paraphrasing or summarizing, the sources must be cited in the end. The quotation or paraphrased article must be cited in-text by stating author’s last name and the page number. Furthermore, quotations more than four lines must set apart in a block with a 1” indent from the set margin. Direct quotations should not include any punctuation mark, apart from period before citation.

Work Cited

At the end of every research paper, all the references cited in the paper must be listed according to the alphabetical order.

Book by a single author

Book written by a single writer must be cited as following order

Last Name, First Name and Initial (if given). Title (underlined). Location: Publisher, Year.

Book by two or more authors

Book written by two or more authors must be cited as following arrangement

Last Name, First Name and Initial (if given), and First Name Last Name. Title (underlined). Location:

If there are more than three writer, then “et al” must be written after first authors’ name

Article in a journal

Articles taken from journal must be cited as

Last Name, First Name. “Article Title.” Journal Title (italics)Volume Number (Year): pages. Publisher, Year.

Article in a newspaper

If a newspaper is used as a source, then the source must be arranged according to the following order

Last Name, First Name. “Article Title.” Newspaper Title (italics) Day Month Year, Edition Information: pages.

Document from an internet site

Documents accessed from an internet site must be organized according to the given below order

Last Name, First Name.. “Document Title.”. Site Title. Day Month Year (of access) <Network Address>

GD Star Rating
loading...

APA Citation Style

GD Star Rating
loading...

APA Citation Style

APA the acronym of American Psychological style is one of the most commonly used style of document. APA is mostly followed in Social Sciences. In APA style, sources used directly or indirectly must be accredited in text as well as in reference page.

General Guidelines

An APA essay should include a page header at the top right of every single page. The page header comprises of 2-3 words relating to the subject of the paper, after which a page number should be placed. Paper should use double spacing on a Standard-sized paper (8.5″ x 11″) having margin of 1” on each sides. The paper should have a “Title Page” and follow the standard essay format of Introduction, Body and Conclusion in APA style format.

In-Text Citation

An in-text citation must be placed when paraphrasing and summarizing the idea. The format of Last name of author, year of publication (in brackets) must be used when citing in-text. When quoting from a book, the writer may provide page number of the books but this is not necessary when paraphrasing. When citing a secondary source, write “cited in” in the in-text citation, then author and date of the work where the material was found.

A quotation of 40 or more words must be set apart in a block, called the block quotation. It should be indented ½” from the left margin and must be typed double spaced like the rest of the typed material without using any quotation mark. Just a final quotation mark is required at the end.

References

In APA format, separate references’ page is required with in-text citation. Given below are the formats used for the “References” section. All entries should use a hanging indent of 1/2’’ from the set margins, after the first line of each entry.

Books by a single author

Books written by a single author will be cited as the following format

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year). Book title (in italics). Location: Publisher.

Books by two or more authors

For two or more authors’ book, following format is required

Last name, First initial. Middle initial, Last name, First initial. Middle initial., & Last name, First Initial,. Middle Initial. (Year). Book title (in italics). Location: Publisher.

It is necessary to put “&” in place of “and” between the name of two authors..

Articles in a journal

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year). Title of article (in italics). Journal Title, Volume, pages.

Article in a magazine

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year, Month Day). Article title (in italics). Magazine Title, Volume, pages.

Article in a newspaper

Articles from a newspaper are cited as

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year, Month Day). Article title. Newspaper Title (in italics), pages.

Article retrieved from an electronic database

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year). Article title. Journal Title (in italics), Volume (in italics), pages. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from Database title database.

GD Star Rating
loading...