How to make a Cover Page of a Term Paper

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How to make a Cover Page of a Term Paper

It is often believed that a book is judged by its cover. Hence the cover page or the title page of a paper, which could be an assignment, research report or a term paper, gives the face and introduction to the work being discussed in that particular paper. Also the cover page conveys critical information about the writer of the paper; hence, it is also vital in expressing the length of the paper.

Given the importance of a Cover page in a term paper, it should be arranged very carefully, keeping in mind that its contents are not only free of all types of syntactical and structural errors, but also, the contents should be brief and precise, without any unnecessary information being crammed in it. Also the arrangement of contents on the cover should be so as to leave a pleasant and clear-cut effect on the mind of the reader.

The contents of Cover Page should include;

Title

The title should be placed in the middle of the page in block letters; given the page is a Standard-sized paper (8.5″ x 11″), the title would be center if its placed at parallel to 4″ marker vertically, using the center alignment feature provided in Microsoft Office. The title of the paper is supposed to be the most emphasized part of your paper so its content should be concise and accurate.

Writer’s Name

Immediately below the title, in the next line writer’s name should be mentioned. There should be double spacing between consecutive lines.

Institution Name

The name of writer’s institution should appear in the next line after writer’s name. Again there should be double spacing between the lines.

Course Instructor’s Name and Course Name

In last, the name of professor to whom the paper is to be submitted should appear. The next line should mention the name of course, followed by the date of submission.

All the above mentioned contents of the title page are to be placed using center alignment, with double spacing in between. Now to give final touch to the Cover page, a running head and a page header are included. Their placement should be as follows

Running Head

The running head in a term paper is the shortened title of the paper. It is mentioned on the extreme left corner of the Cover page after leaving 1″ margin on each side. It is mentioned along with the actual words “Running Head” followed by a colon, after which the shortened title is stated. This short title is supposed to appear on every page of your paper.

Page Header

A page header of the Cover page is added in the first 1″ of the paper starting from extreme upper left corner of the page and ending in at extreme right upper corner. It is usually 1″ wide and contains the page number along with the running head.

This covers all the important aspects of term paper writing, so, happy writing!

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How to write a Good Personal Essay

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How to write a Good Personal Essay

A personal essay is a reflection of a person’s thoughts and actions after the deeds. The actions and reactions have taken place and the author is reminiscing about the things that actually happened and what could have happened. In short, a personal essay is a writer’s attempt to share his thoughts with those who are literally strangers to him.

Like any good essay, if the basics are to be followed, a personal essay will also contain an introductory paragraph followed by three to four paragraphs containing three to four ideas relating to writer’s views. The essay should have a conclusion paragraph at the end, but when it comes to the contents of this paragraph, there should not be any stagnation in views and ideas, the vocabulary or the style of conveying the contents.

There are few pointers that should be considered when writing a personal essay. As the essay is a reflection of writer’s own personality, he should make sure that it is presented in the best possible manner. Hence, the following points should be taken under consideration;

Tense

It is accepted as a norm by most critics that a personal essay should be written with first person point of view. Rather than writing the who said what in one’s own words and then explaining his or her emotions, it is a wiser and suitable choice to adopt the active voice. It allows the reader to take an event at its face value.

Language

The language being used in the essay plays a vital part in keeping the reader engrossed in a particular account. Instead of assembling long tedious sentences revolving around a single idea, being short and snappy is the preferred approach for personal accounts as it keeps the reader interested and prevents the essay from getting monotonous.

Grammar

Use of correct grammar is also a very important component for a good personal essay. It is vital for the writer to keep in mind that the content of his essay are not only free from all types of syntactical and structural errors, but also there should not be any grammatical errors present in the account. These types of errors tend to take the attention of the readers away from the content of essay and reflect badly upon the credibility of writer.

After making sure the above mentioned areas are covered, the actual writing of the essay begins. As mentioned earlier, the essay is to be divided in three portions; introduction, body and conclusion.

Introduction

After undertaking an interesting topic, starting the essay with an interesting sentence is crucial. The reader needs to be addressed so that he feels involved in the events that are unfolding in the essay. A strong compelling introduction gains the interest of a reader and given a hint about the body of essay, without actually revealing it.

Body

The body of an essay can comprise of three or more paragraphs. These hold the content that needs to be addressed in the essay. Each paragraph discusses a single idea, but it does so in a way that a whole essay is being written in a single paragraph. Here, the first few lines are used to introduce the idea for that particular paragraph, followed by a discussion of the idea, while the last few lines usually wrap up the discussion by stating the effects of that idea. A paragraph usually contains eight to ten lines. But this is not a restriction as the key is to present the views without being boring and repetitive.

Conclusion

Finally, the last paragraph concludes all the ideas discussed in the preceding paragraphs of the essay. The conclusion usually includes the hopes and wishes of the writer regarding his ideas. A good conclusion also ties all the loose ends and hints that are deliberately included in the introduction.

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Chicago Citation Style

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Chicago Citation Style

The Chicago referencing style, also referred as The Chicago Manual of Style or CMS, is a commonly followed documentation style, especially in American English literary works or papers. It has been a frequently adapted style for documentation of editorial practice. This style is followed when the source of information about a stated fact is important to be known, rather than just the author and year of publication of the source. The Chicago style is specially preferred for the effective use of its foot notes or end notes, where the author can include the complete source information or incorporate extra information to make the essay more meaningful.

Types of Chicago Style Manual

The Chicago style of documentation follows two types of styles for the papers. These are termed as Author-Date style of citation and Notes-Bibliography style.

General Guidelines

An essay should include a page header at the top right of every single page. The page header contains the page number along with the running head. Paper must be double spaced assuming that standard-sized paper (8.5″ x 11″) is being used, with a margin of 1” on each side. A complete paper is supposed to contain “Cover or Title Page”, “Body” and “References or Bibliography” and in case of Notes-Bibliography style “footnotes”.

Title Page:

When doing the Cover page or the Title page of Chicago styled paper, it is necessary that the title should be placed in the middle of the page in block letters; immediately below the title, in the next line writer’s name should be mentioned with double spacing between consecutive lines. The name of writer’s institution should appear in the next line, followed by name of the professor for the course, name of course and then finally the date. Also on the cover page Running head is mentioned on the extreme left corner of the Cover page after leaving 1″ margin on each side. A page header of the Cover page is added in the first 1″ of cover page containing running head and page number.

Numbering:

The page numbers appear on the top right corner of each page in page header. All pages are numbered in the Chicago styled papers, including the cover page, which is numbered 1. So the page after the title page is number 2.

Spacing and Margins:

The papers written in Chicago style have standard double line spacing between two consecutive lines, with 1″ margins left on each side of the page. Each new paragraph begins with half inch indent on its extreme left in the first sentence. The quotations in Chicago styled papers are referred as block quotation and in a quotation the line spacing is kept single, with entire quotation half indented from the margin or is center aligned.

Footnotes and Bibliography:

The Bibliography maintained in Author-Date style is simple, i.e. mentioning name of author and year of publication within round brackets for in text citation, but the entry of corresponding source in bibliography follows certain rules.

Books by a single author

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year). Book title (italics). Location: Publisher.

Books by two or more authors

Last name, First initial. Middle initial., Last name, First initial. Middle initial., and Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year). Book title (italics). Location: Publisher.

Edited book

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Ed.). (Year). Book title (italics). Location: Publisher.

Articles in a journal

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. Title of article. Journal Title, Volume, (Year), pages.

Article in a magazine

Such articles are not included in Bibliography. Citation is made in running text style.

Article in a newspaper

Such articles are not included in Bibliography. Citation is made in running text style.

Article retrieved from an electronic database

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year). Article title. Journal Title, Volume, pages. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from Database title database.

However, when following the Notes-Bibliography Style, the in text citation is mentioned by square brackets [] with a numeral written in between, the number points to corresponding foot note included in the end of that page. The procedure for writing footnotes is as follows,

Books by a single author

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Book title. Location: Publisher. Year).

Books by two or more authors

Last name, First initial. Middle initial., Last name, First initial. Middle initial., and Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Book title. Location: Publisher. Year).

Edited book

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Ed.). (Year). Book title. Location: Publisher.

Articles in a journal

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. Title of article. Journal Title, Volume, (Year), pages.

Article in a magazine

In the footnote, the commentary is made in running text style.

Article in a newspaper

In the footnote, the commentary is made in running text style.

Article retrieved from an electronic database

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. Article title. Journal Title, Volume, pages. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from Database title database. (Year).

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Harvard Citation Style

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Harvard Citation Style

Harvard referencing style is the system, which is frequently used in physical, natural and social sciences. Due to the flexibility, ease and lucidity which this system provides, to both readers and writers, this style has become the most commonly used style internationally for academic journals.

General Guidelines

An essay should include a page header at the top right of every single page. The page header comprises of 2-3 words of the main subject of paper, after which a page number should be placed. Paper should use double spacing on a Standard-sized paper (8.5″ x 11″), having margin of 1” on each sides.

In-Text Citation

In Harvard citation style, all a writer needs to do is to mention the author and the date of the publication while doing in-text citation, while the bibliography page has to be organized in an alphabetical order. When quoting someone other’s work in the text, that text should be enclosed in quotation marks, followed by the last name and the date. At the same time, if a writer paraphrases someone’s work, then it is not required to be put in quotation marks, but the work should be cited by writing author’s name and the publication year.

Bibliography page

In the bibliography page, all the sources which are used and cited in the paper must be listed. These sources must be listed on alphabetical order.

Following are the formats used for bibliography page

Books by a single author

For referencing a book written by one author, following order must be followed

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year of publication). Book title (in italics), volume number. Place of publication: Publisher

Books by more than one author

For the book, which is written by more than one author, the order will be

Last name, First initial. Middle initial and . Last name, First initial. Middle initial (Year of publication). Book title (in italics), volume number. place of publication, Publisher

Articles from a journal

An article from a journal should be cited as following format

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year of publication). Title of article, journal of article Volume, pages,

Article in a newspaper

Articles from a newspaper are cited as

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year,). Article title. Newspaper Title, Month Day, pages

Article retrieved from an electronic database

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year). Article title. Journal Title [Internet], date of publication, Volume, pages. Available from: <Internet address> , [Accessed and date of viewing the page]

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MLA citation style

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MLA citation style

MLA citation style is Modern language Association’s rules and convention, which are used for the purpose of acknowledging source used in research papers.

General Guidelines

In MLA style, a page header is included at the top right of every single page. The page header includes the surname of the writer and page number. Paper should use double spacing and a standard typeface and type size, using 1” margin on the every corner of the page.

In-Text Citation

In case of quoting, paraphrasing or summarizing, the sources must be cited in the end. The quotation or paraphrased article must be cited in-text by stating author’s last name and the page number. Furthermore, quotations more than four lines must set apart in a block with a 1” indent from the set margin. Direct quotations should not include any punctuation mark, apart from period before citation.

Work Cited

At the end of every research paper, all the references cited in the paper must be listed according to the alphabetical order.

Book by a single author

Book written by a single writer must be cited as following order

Last Name, First Name and Initial (if given). Title (underlined). Location: Publisher, Year.

Book by two or more authors

Book written by two or more authors must be cited as following arrangement

Last Name, First Name and Initial (if given), and First Name Last Name. Title (underlined). Location:

If there are more than three writer, then “et al” must be written after first authors’ name

Article in a journal

Articles taken from journal must be cited as

Last Name, First Name. “Article Title.” Journal Title (italics)Volume Number (Year): pages. Publisher, Year.

Article in a newspaper

If a newspaper is used as a source, then the source must be arranged according to the following order

Last Name, First Name. “Article Title.” Newspaper Title (italics) Day Month Year, Edition Information: pages.

Document from an internet site

Documents accessed from an internet site must be organized according to the given below order

Last Name, First Name.. “Document Title.”. Site Title. Day Month Year (of access) <Network Address>

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APA Citation Style

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APA Citation Style

APA the acronym of American Psychological style is one of the most commonly used style of document. APA is mostly followed in Social Sciences. In APA style, sources used directly or indirectly must be accredited in text as well as in reference page.

General Guidelines

An APA essay should include a page header at the top right of every single page. The page header comprises of 2-3 words relating to the subject of the paper, after which a page number should be placed. Paper should use double spacing on a Standard-sized paper (8.5″ x 11″) having margin of 1” on each sides. The paper should have a “Title Page” and follow the standard essay format of Introduction, Body and Conclusion in APA style format.

In-Text Citation

An in-text citation must be placed when paraphrasing and summarizing the idea. The format of Last name of author, year of publication (in brackets) must be used when citing in-text. When quoting from a book, the writer may provide page number of the books but this is not necessary when paraphrasing. When citing a secondary source, write “cited in” in the in-text citation, then author and date of the work where the material was found.

A quotation of 40 or more words must be set apart in a block, called the block quotation. It should be indented ½” from the left margin and must be typed double spaced like the rest of the typed material without using any quotation mark. Just a final quotation mark is required at the end.

References

In APA format, separate references’ page is required with in-text citation. Given below are the formats used for the “References” section. All entries should use a hanging indent of 1/2’’ from the set margins, after the first line of each entry.

Books by a single author

Books written by a single author will be cited as the following format

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year). Book title (in italics). Location: Publisher.

Books by two or more authors

For two or more authors’ book, following format is required

Last name, First initial. Middle initial, Last name, First initial. Middle initial., & Last name, First Initial,. Middle Initial. (Year). Book title (in italics). Location: Publisher.

It is necessary to put “&” in place of “and” between the name of two authors..

Articles in a journal

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year). Title of article (in italics). Journal Title, Volume, pages.

Article in a magazine

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year, Month Day). Article title (in italics). Magazine Title, Volume, pages.

Article in a newspaper

Articles from a newspaper are cited as

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year, Month Day). Article title. Newspaper Title (in italics), pages.

Article retrieved from an electronic database

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year). Article title. Journal Title (in italics), Volume (in italics), pages. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from Database title database.

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Difference Between an Essay and a Term Paper

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A student may be exposed to various kinds of writing while studying different arts and humanities subjects. These could include project reports, case studies or diaries. However, essay remains the most common form of writing in arts and humanities. A Term Paper is a piece of writing, which requires demonstration of a more abstract, critical and thoughtful level of inquiry. Students are expected to write Term Papers usually at the college or university level, to judge their writing and analytical skills.

The word essay originally meant to attempt, but now it is commonly referred to as a short piece of writing on a particular subject. The piece of writing should be able to stand-alone and make sense by addressing certain issues, which could range from literary criticism to political manifestos and observations of daily life. Essays are usually shorter in length but they should be well organized and put together an argument that leads the reader to a conclusion. An essay typically composes of more than three paragraphs. The first paragraph gives a brief introduction of the topic, which is then followed by two or three paragraphs, which try to prove an argument. A concluding paragraph at the end summarizes the findings of the essay.

In order to write a Term Paper, a writer must familiarize himself with the works of experts and other well-published authors in the respective field. These published works can be accessed on the Internet, libraries, and scholarly journals or through personal interviews. This will help in building on a person’s knowledge about the subject and serve as a baseline for comparing his ideas with these published sources (Term Papers_ What is a Term Paper).

Writing essays is an important part of studying because it depends the learning of a subject being studied. A person will learn to put forth new ideas and argue a case. Essays can also help in refining an individual’s thinking and writing skill. Preparing a good essay requires skills that highlight the analytical and critical thinking abilities of a writer. A good essay should be sharp in focus and answer the question or main topic. All relevant parts of the course need to be grasped so that a logical, fair and coherent argument is presented to the reader. The essay should be written in an objective and analytical way, with appropriate use of illustration and evidence to substantiate the claims.

A Term Paper needs to provide relevant information, facts and figures supported by the works of these expert figures. A writer must also incorporate his own critical thinking, insights and ideas into the paper; these are often backed by the findings of some research conducted earlier.

There are many different types of essays. Academic essays challenge the intellectual capabilities of students and their ability to organize thoughts. They may include a literature review, which summarizes the research conducted earlier. All academic essays need to be supported by substantial facts and citations of the references, to help in the evaluation of arguments. A writer puts his thoughts on a paper in an essay. The writer needs to consider the subject and determine the purpose of writing. Thought should also be given to the audience before deciding on specific examples. The essay should be a well-organized and coherent piece of writing supported by appropriate facts and examples.

A descriptive essay should provide greater sensory details to touch the emotional, physical and intellectual senses of a reader (English Works!_ Essays). The writer must make use of tools such as denotative language, connotative language, figurative language, metaphor, and simile to create a strong impact. In a philosophical essay, the writer makes a thesis statement and present arguments and counterarguments to reach an open-minded conclusion. Other type of essays gaining popularity relate to visual arts, music and films.

A Term Paper may also assume certain kinds. An analytical paper requires a comprehensive understanding of a topic by researching it thoroughly. All existing information needs to be critically analyzed and evaluated. After this analysis, a writer must be able to restructure and present the topic from his own perspective. It is important not to reach any conclusions when doing the research. An argumentative or persuasive type of paper requires the person to take a stand on a particular topic, and support it with appropriate examples and evidence. The attempt is to convince the reader of writer’s point of view. The person is not trying to explore a research question but presenting his point of view. A person may present his insights, critical evaluations and other beliefs at the end of the paper to draw conclusions

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Nursing School Admission Essay Tips

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The main purpose of the nursing school admission essay is to prove that you are worth of being accepted to the nursing school you are applying for. It can be only a 500 word essay but your acceptance and rejection may depend on it.

Nursing School Admission Essay Tips

Nursing school admission essay should include information about you and the issues which prove that you really want to take up nursing as a career. Your imagination, skills, talent and knowledge help in writing an impressive nursing school admission essay. Essay writing process might take many days.

Here are some points which should be illustrated in the essay.

a) Brain storming:

Take time to think about the possible essay subjects and the following points should be considered:

What are you like?

· Strongest personality trait and any quality that distinguishes you from others.

· Your friends’ opinions about you and what do you think they would write if they were writing the admission essay for you.

· Your favorite movies, books and works of art should be considered and how they influence your life.

· Your experience of a moment of epiphany as if your eyes are opened to something you previously didn’t notice or care about.

What have you done?

· Your major accomplishments.

· Your activities outside classroom which demonstrate qualities sought after by universities.

· If you ever struggled for something and succeeded, what made you successful or if you struggled for something and failed, how did you react.

· Your most difficult time in life and how did it affect your life.

Where do you want to go?

· Where do you want to be and most like to be doing right now and who would you like to be with?

· Your dreams.

· Reason for selecting this particular university.

b) Selecting an Essay Topic

It is important to choose the essay topic wisely. Think of how this subject matter can be made original. A boring topic can be made interesting if creatively approached. Consider the following points when choosing an essay topic:

· Does the topic repeat information listed somewhere in your application? And if it does, choose another topic. GPAs and standardized test scores should not be mentioned in the essay.

· There should be supporting paragraphs to the essay topic. So think of the supporting paragraphs with concrete examples before selecting any topic.

· Select a topic which you think the officer will remember after a day of reading a number of essays.

Choose a story

A good essay tells a story about the applicant and it is not the story of the whole life but just a glimpse. An ordinary story can be told in a unique and captivating way.

c) Writing the Essay

When writing nursing school admission essay, two points should be focused: to prove to the admission officer that you are worthy of admission and that you are more than a GPA and standardized score. Your writing should reflect your intriguing personality.

Introduction

The admission officer will spend maximum two minutes reading your essay so keeping this fact in mind, create mystery or intrigue in the first paragraph to give the admission officer a reason to continue reading.

The Body

The body must relate to the introduction. Having a theme or phrase helps to run throughout the essay. Use simple language and specific examples.

Conclusion

The conclusion is the last chance to impress the reader. Broader implications of the discussion should be expanded.

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Writing a Literature Essay

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Writing a good essay on literature involves the following five steps

Writing a Literature Essay

Writing a good essay on literature involves the following five steps:

a) Understanding the purpose of writing literature essays.

b) Understanding the work of literature

c) Defining the term “English”

d) Focusing on the essay.

e) Writing the essay.

a) The purpose of writing literary essays is that the instructors want students to examine the literary works closely because they deserve attention. These writings are moving and express the feelings and thoughts of humanity. When a student writes a literary essay, the purpose is to show how much he understands the literary works.

b) Before writing a literary essay, it is important to understand the work, its content, form and function by reviewing it closely and repeatedly. It’s like taking an engine apart and putting it back together. The process involves understanding the particular literary work well. It is important to examine each choice made by the author and explain how it relates to the whole. Then all the elements of work must be taken into account such as sound, shape on the page, structure; which includes the length of the chapter and number of chapters etc, the point of view and so on. Then a list should be made, keeping in mind the purpose of the essay and move through it.

c) “English” has been a subject of debate for many centuries and it is important to know how to use it. Work’s historical period and the author should be researched; where is the author from, how did that location relate to England during that period and how does this research show up in the work.

d) When writing a literary essay, the writer argues for the specific interpretation of the work. The thesis statement should express the essential focus of the essay. It can be phrased in many ways like this: “In this essay, I will prove __________ about this work.” It is important to relate the focus to the purposes of literary essays. The writer should prove that he understands this work on a profound level, but also the larger meaning of the literary form, the particular period of English literature; writing and humanity are also understood.

e) The writer should not start the essay here. It is important to do the other steps first. Make a pile of notes and a clear sense of the focus regarding the work before coming to the writing stage. Literary essay should be started with a clearly defined introduction and should end with a clearly stated thesis. Three or more body paragraphs should be written, each of which should have points that support the thesis and points which show specific evidence from the work itself and the outside research. Transitions should be provided between paragraphs so that the reader can understand the conclusion that sums up the essay and reflects what the writer learned by writing the essay and teaches the readers something new. After finishing the essay, it is important to review it and proof read it until its error- free.

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How to polish your Essay Writing Skills

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Essay writing skills are vital for students. There are some techniques which can help polish your essay writing skills and it is important to remember that practice makes perfect

How to polish your Essay Writing Skills

The first thing is to explore the topic and the writer should know how he will go about the essay. To be a good essay writer, it is essential to make your reading and thinking both very strong. Though most of the material is available on the internet which helps you write your essay but library should also be frequently visited. Essay writing should be done with proper planning. If you try to do unplanned essay writing, you will get stuck in the middle and there will be no way out, round or through. Take necessary notes and make a draft before beginning final essay writing. Random and eleventh hour essay writing gives limited options to the writer and affects the quality of the essay.

Keep proof reading as you write the essay. It is very important to check and recheck the essay at every stage. Check each paragraph as you write because there is always room for improvement. For better essay writing, keep checking as you write.

Good essay writing should have consistency. Tenses and noun arrangement should be synchronized. The essay must be logical. Essay writing should reflect the logical aspect of your thinking and it gets easier if you stay precise.

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