APA Citation Style

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APA Citation Style

APA the acronym of American Psychological style is one of the most commonly used style of document. APA is mostly followed in Social Sciences. In APA style, sources used directly or indirectly must be accredited in text as well as in reference page.

General Guidelines

An APA essay should include a page header at the top right of every single page. The page header comprises of 2-3 words relating to the subject of the paper, after which a page number should be placed. Paper should use double spacing on a Standard-sized paper (8.5″ x 11″) having margin of 1” on each sides. The paper should have a “Title Page” and follow the standard essay format of Introduction, Body and Conclusion in APA style format.

In-Text Citation

An in-text citation must be placed when paraphrasing and summarizing the idea. The format of Last name of author, year of publication (in brackets) must be used when citing in-text. When quoting from a book, the writer may provide page number of the books but this is not necessary when paraphrasing. When citing a secondary source, write “cited in” in the in-text citation, then author and date of the work where the material was found.

A quotation of 40 or more words must be set apart in a block, called the block quotation. It should be indented ½” from the left margin and must be typed double spaced like the rest of the typed material without using any quotation mark. Just a final quotation mark is required at the end.

References

In APA format, separate references’ page is required with in-text citation. Given below are the formats used for the “References” section. All entries should use a hanging indent of 1/2’’ from the set margins, after the first line of each entry.

Books by a single author

Books written by a single author will be cited as the following format

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year). Book title (in italics). Location: Publisher.

Books by two or more authors

For two or more authors’ book, following format is required

Last name, First initial. Middle initial, Last name, First initial. Middle initial., & Last name, First Initial,. Middle Initial. (Year). Book title (in italics). Location: Publisher.

It is necessary to put “&” in place of “and” between the name of two authors..

Articles in a journal

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year). Title of article (in italics). Journal Title, Volume, pages.

Article in a magazine

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year, Month Day). Article title (in italics). Magazine Title, Volume, pages.

Article in a newspaper

Articles from a newspaper are cited as

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year, Month Day). Article title. Newspaper Title (in italics), pages.

Article retrieved from an electronic database

Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year). Article title. Journal Title (in italics), Volume (in italics), pages. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from Database title database.

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Critique Paper Writing Tips

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Critique Paper Writing Tips

It is imperative to understand what a critique paper really is. When your teacher asks you to write a critique, they are asking you to analyze and evaluate, and not just summarize. A critique is rather an essay or article that criticizes literary or other work e.g. a movie. Make sure you are completely familiar with the book/movie/piece of art before critiquing it. A critique answers the few questions of how? why? and how well? A critique does not mean criticizing the work in a negative sense but rather interpreting it as you see it. It usually combines both positive and negative.

• The first step to take is to analyze the piece of work. Discuss the author’s main point of view and his purpose. See who is he performing for i.e. who is his audience. What arguments does the author use to support his main point and what evidence does he cite. Check for any underlying biases or assumptions in the work that the author produces.

• Next, you need to evaluate the author’s ideas. You need to see whether the argument he provides is logical, and the facts provided accurate. There might be jargon present in a book, so the author should have defined it and explained it or even in other works, important terms should be defined. You should check the authenticity of facts and sources cited and whether there is a sufficient amount of it.

• Lastly, you need to plan and write your critique. You should do this in standard essay form. In the first paragraph, you need to introduce the topic, state the thesis, make a plot summary, and give your readers a clue of what they are to expect. An introduction also includes the background of the piece of work that you are going to critique. For a book, write the name of the author and a bit of information about them that pertains to the argument. A movie introduction includes the director, the basic theme, and the names of the main actors. An art critique would include basic information on the painter and the work that you are going to examine, as well as basic features of this certain work such as its title, the art materials that have been used, and its location.

In the second part of the critique i.e. the main body, start into the story. In this part, you will have to introduce the characters, setting, and give a lot of detail. Bring out the author’s important points and evaluate whether the evidence provided by the author supports his point of view. Break the thesis and different parts of the story into separate points and examine each point separately. A very important thing that will strengthen all your arguments is giving real examples from the piece of work you are using.

Conclude the critique paper with really critiquing the piece of work i.e. the good and bad, and how it made you feel. Answer any questions you raised along the way and make the final statement about the piece of work.

If you are having a problem with writing your critique paper, bring it to Term Papers Corner where efficient and experienced professionals will do it for you. The writers at Term Papers Corner will familiarize with the piece of work, interpret it, and support their questions with evidence.

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Bibliography Writing Tips

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Bibliography Writing Tips

· First write the name of the author. Ignore any designations or degrees that appear after or before the name e.g. Mr., Mrs., Dr., Ms., Rev., S.J., Esq., Ph.D., M.D., and Q.C. the only exceptions to this rule are the titles Jr. and Sr. since these are two different people and it needs to be defined which is being spoken of. The same way, we need to use I, II, or III etc. where appropriate. The general format is Author’s last Name, first Name, middle name/middle initial (as preferred by the author) and designation (excepted ones). For example:

Delfino, Michael R., Jr.

If there are two authors of a book, then the general format is author’s last name, first name, and second author’s full name. For example:

Lackey, Jack K. and Susan Dixon

· The next thing to include is the title and subtitle. Use the title on the title page if it differs from the one on the front page and underline it e.g. Encyclopedia Britannica

However, for a newspaper, if the title of the newspaper does not indicate the place of publication, add the name of the city after the title in square brackets e.g. National Post [Toronto]

Also, do not underline the title or subtitle of an article in a newspaper, magazine, journal etc.; instead put it between quotation marks and separate the title from the subtitle using a colon (:) e.g. Brian Hutchinson. “Sixth foot washes up in B.C.: Foot appears to have been ‘sawn off’” National Post [Toronto]

Capitalize the first word of the title and the subtitle as well as all the important words except which are articles, prepositions, or conjunctions e.g. Report Says Severe Weather to Increase as Earth Warms

· The next thing to add to the bibliography is the Place of Publication and the name of publisher both of which only apply to books. The Place of Publication does not mean the country, state, or province. Therefore, you may not use United Kingdom or Ontario. You should only use the name of the city or town. If there is more than one city or town listed as the Place of Publication, choose the first one indicated. It is not necessary to add the State or Province if it is a well known city e.g. London or New York. If you think that the name of the city or town may create confusion, add abbreviated letters for State or Province to clarify it e.g. Austin, TX. As for the publisher, make sure you note the publisher and not the printer! If the book has more than one publisher, list the publishers in the order given with their individual year of publication. Shorten the publisher name e.g. use Macmillan, not Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc. In both cases, use “n.p.” to indicate that no Place of Publication or publisher name has been mentioned.

· Another important aspect is the date of publication. For a book, use the most recent copyright year e.g. 2006, for a monthly or quarterly publication, use the respective month and year, or season and year, for a daily or weekly publication, use the date, month and year.

Term Papers Corner writes your bibliography for you according to the different style required e.g. MLA, APA etc. and does it expertly.

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