Educational Dictionary

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Encyclopedia A

Abstract

An abstract may be defined as a summary or overview of a detailed written work. It is a vague review of the key points of a thesis or any other lengthy research work. It is usually used to give the readers and students a rough idea of what lies in the complete document. Most online libraries and databases provide abstracts of published dissertations, theses and research documents comprising of 2-3 pages in order to help scholars get the whole idea of the thesis work they are interested in purchasing or citing their work.

The word is also used to describe a piece of art or work that does not symbolize external reality but is based upon a focused hypothesis for example an abstract piece of art like a painting or an abstract idea.

Abstract reasoning

The capability to reason philosophically is known as abstract reasoning. It is a perfect contrary of concrete reasoning that involves thinking on a factual level. Abstract thinking involves the ability of a person to evaluate any given data in order to come up to a conclusion in a subtle manner. The use of allegory, premise, multifaceted equivalence in the process of problem-solving or coming up with novel ideas and theories is an important part of the abstract reasoning process.

Testing of intelligence and educational quotient requires the assessment of abstract reasoning. It is a gifted skill that can never be taught as a course but is more of an inborn quality people with high IQ possess. Predicting the possible outcome of a sports tournament keeping in mind the latest performance of teams is a common example of abstract reasoning.

Abbreviation

The short word that may be written to represent the full form of a word or slogan is called an abbreviation. In other words to abbreviate is to shorten of a long word o phrase. An abbreviation can be a single letter of may be a small group of letters that are extracted from the original word or sentence. German and Russian are the languages where the abbreviation is extensively used however in all other languages like English, French, and Chinese and Japanese the use of abbreviation is easily noticeable. ASAP is an abbreviation that is commonly used in everyday life. It stands for as soon as possible another familiar abbreviation is USA that can be used in place of writing the full form that is United States of America. A/S/L is another example of it that stands for age/sex/location. The full word or phrase that is abbreviated is called the acronym.

Academic writing

Academic writing is a type of writing that demonstrates the substantiation of knowledge, and it usually assesses the previously addressed subject from a new angle. Most of the academic writing is done with a cynical perspective of questioning and re-evaluating the facts to confirm the existing ideas or to come up with innate theories. Academic writing is not the usual stuff that is written in everyday language. It is more like analytical writing that demands deductive logic, formal representation and third person viewpoints.

The topic of academic writing must be of some importance and interest for the academicians.

An appropriate piece of academic writing must be comprised of three key parts: introduction, body and conclusion. Acknowledging the references and citing the sources from where the material is utilized is crucial in academic writing.

Customary varieties of academic writing include essays, dissertations, research papers, thesis, conference papers, abstracts, book, book reviews, pamphlets, presentations, translations and explications, etc.

Acknowledgement

An expression of appreciation and gratitude is known as an acknowledgement. An acknowledgement often appears as a concise text either in the beginning or at the end of a book and mostly consists of names of people who helped the writer during the process of writing that particular book. It is necessary to acknowledge the sources as well as people who helped the scholar to come up with a piece of academic writing especially a dissertation, thesis or research paper at the beginning of any such document. Failure to acknowledge sources and inadequate citation is often considered as plagiarism and is thought to be illegal in academic settings.

The acknowledgement of sources represents the careful and extensive research done by the writer and provides the readers with the insight of the topic at the same tie providing them with the source for further readable material. It also demonstrates the writers’ skill as a proficient scholar and academic participant.

Admission essay

An admission or application essay is an article that is written by a pupil seeking admission to a particular college or university. This essay provides an overview of the personality, ambitions and interests of the prospective student in relation to his/her choice of the school.

The application essay is also sometimes referred as a personal statement. It is a customary module of almost all certified institutional application. It provides the student a chance to explicate his/her own educational and professional as well as personal record that have guided you to take up a future relating to the particular area of interest and the university. This is explained by means of a sequence of events, illustration, and analysis of the writers’ personality. These essays help the admission committee to sketch a personality by referring the narrative to the academic figures, test scores and GPA.

The main idea of writing an admission essay is to convince the admission board of the selected college/university to grant priority to the approaching candidate over others who are competing for the admission process.

Analytical essays

Analytical essays (also called analysis essay) falls in the category of composition that deals with construing or scrutinizing a specific fact. An analysis essay may be literary i.e. a book review, a cause and effect or explanatory study or a process analysis article.

The topic of the analytical essay may include a poem, novel, idea, autobiography, story, article, fiction or non-fiction or auditory or visual characters, symbols, icons or even a relationship.

The writer of analytical compositions has to perceive personal view to the material that is read regarding the essay topic and come up with a claim. The supportive data and hypothesis are presented later in the essay. The pros and cons of the debate are also presented at this time. A discussion of veiled arguments and intrinsic denial is a must.

A summary or abstract, claim, analysis of assumptions, hidden arguments, inherent contradictions, analysis of audience and evidence are the fundamental components of an analytical essay.

Annotation

Adding notes or details and extra information to a textual material is known as annotation. The combined information may be noted, rationalization, commentary, interpretation or supplementary information about the presented portion of the manuscript.

They can be regarded as metadata that is because it explains the already defined points in further detail. Annotations are meant to exemplify, elucidate, or evaluate any particular part of an essay, book, thesis or article in depth.

Bibliographies and reference pages that are attached to any research document or manuscript to cite resources can be annotated. In annotated bibliographies, each citation is pursued by a succinct paragraph that is explanatory and precise. It is added to the document to provide the accurate information regarding the authenticity, quality and precision as well as the point of view of the author of the source that is used to write a certain part of the paper.

APA

APA is a type of citation style used for formatting and editorial purpose mainly to present written material. APA or American psychological association style is usually used in writing research papers, manuscripts and theses in social sciences.

APA style concerns formatting of quotation and resources, proper set up of cross-references, appendices, charts, numerals and organization of headings in order to make the manuscripts fit the style guidelines and authentic style manual is being published by the American psychologist association since 1929. APA catalog the original source of the written material in a systematic alphabetical manner in the reference list at the end of the document facilitating the readers to trace the source for further information and reading.

Application essay

An application essay is an article that is written by a pupil seeking admission to a particular college or university. This essay provides an overview of the personality, ambitions and interests of the prospective student in relation to his/her choice of the school.

The application essay is also sometimes referred as a personal statement. It is a customary module of almost all certified institutional application. It provides the student a chance to explicate his/her own educational and professional as well as personal record that have guided you to take up a future relating to the particular area of interest and the university. This is explained by means of a sequence of events, illustration, and analysis of the writers’ personality. These essays help the admission committee to sketch a personality by relating the narrative to the academic figures, test scores and GPA.

Argumentative essay

Argumentative essays (also called persuasive essays) are articles that are written in order to convince the audience or readers of the point of view the writer of the essay carries. This kind of essays persuades the readers to share the facts and values the author is presenting and adopt the thinking mode the writer has in order to accept the argument and conclusions.

Basics parts of an argumentative essay are first of all to establish a fact and then explaining own perspective on it to the audience. The writer then presents the facts, figures, pros and cons and values to build the argument and state the conclusion. A paragraph of persuasion follows the conclusion.

Article

An article is a piece of writing on any topic that elaborates the writer’s view on the subject. It is also called an essay and can be of several types such as argument, definition, description and explanation. The standard layout of an article is divided into a section that presents the readers with appropriate and interesting background or introductory material. This section may be termed as an overview. The overview may be followed by a few paragraphs (that are not too long to bore the readers neither too short to be termed as incomplete) that describes and illustrates the writers’ ideas and contains supporting material. This is known as body of the essay. It may contain tables, facts and figures, quotations, in text citations, images, headings and other material. The conclusion follows this section.

Assignment

The turning over of a task to a particular person or group is called assignment. An assignment can be in the form of a written thesis or paper, science or art project that has to be designed and executed or simply a routine duty.

In academic settings an assignment is usually a school task given to a student in order to satisfy the teacher’s requirements.

Assessment

The analysis to of evaluate or assess an individual, situation or incident is known as assessment. However, in academic assessment is a routine practice school, colleges and universities employ to determine the proficiency and knowledge of a student or scholar in any of the academic fields. Almost every subject studied at an institution can be assessed by the faculty or teachers by written, oral or practical tests depending upon the course and requirements of the institutions. The goal of assessing a student is to assemble and utilize data to infer the level of his/her knowledge, intellect and skill mostly for promotion to next academic level.